With the current onslaught of climate and disaster-related new events, and as the world grapples with the urgency of environmental issues, artists are leveraging their platforms to address issues surrounding art and sustainability.
Across the political divide, delving into sustainability within the realm of art fosters a crucial discourse on contemporary artistic practices and their lasting implications for the future. Using plastic, performance, and digital mediums, artists are increasingly facing the task of articulating the imperatives of conservation, climate change, and social responsibility.
In this article, you will explore three forms of Sustainability in Art, examine art’s usefulness and its potential wastefulness, look at digital art’s role in sustainability, and discover three amazing contemporary artists who effectively take sustainability in art to a whole new level.
Table of Contents
What is Sustainability in Art?
There are three primary areas in which art and sustainability become a real and tangible theme through art production and materials, themes and public discourse, and challenges related to the transport, presentation, and storage of art.
Art and Sustainability through Production Materials and Usage
Sustainability in art refers to the integration of eco-friendly practices, materials, and philosophies within the realm of artistic expression. It involves the conscious choice of artists to reduce their environmental footprint, whether by using recycled materials, reducing waste, or considering the long-term environmental impact of their creations.
As artists today are becoming increasingly conscientious in their material choices and keenly aware of the environmental implications of their work, this evolving consciousness has steered many towards eco-friendly materials, with some forgoing conventional mediums in favor of organic, biodegradable, or less harmful alternatives.
For instance, instead of using acrylics or oil-based paints, which contain toxic solvents, some artists are reverting to plant-based dyes, watercolors, or mineral pigments. Traditional sculpture materials, like certain resins or chemically treated woods, can be non-biodegradable and harmful when disposed of, posing long-term environmental threats.
In response to such challenges, many contemporary artists are championing the ethos of upcycling and recycling, weaving sustainability into the very fabric of their creations. They repurpose discarded materials, from plastics to metals to textiles, breathing new life into what was once considered waste.
These artists not only reduce the strain on raw resources but also create powerful commentaries on consumerism, waste, and the environment. Renowned figures in this realm, like El Anatsui with his majestic tapestries made from bottle caps, or Jane Perkins with her intricate recreations of classic artworks using found objects, exemplify how art and sustainability can beautifully coalesce.
Art and Sustainable Dialogue
Sustainable art is not just limited to the materials and methods; it also encompasses the themes and messages conveyed through artworks.
As art often serves as an effective catalyst for political change, artists who focus on sustainability often tackle issues related to environmental conservation, climate change, and societal responsibility in their works, aiming to raise awareness and inspire action.
Some of the issues often addressed in contemporary art revolve around the following:
- Climate Change
In the ever-evolving sphere of contemporary art, climate change stands out as a pivotal theme capturing the attention of numerous artists. They often spotlight the tangible impacts of this global phenomenon. From rising sea levels and the steady melting of our planet’s ice caps to the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, artworks centered on these themes serve as stark reminders of the escalating crisis enveloping our world.
- Biodiversity Loss
Another pressing issue addressed in the realm of art is biodiversity loss. Artists, through their creations, shed light on endangered species, the rapid deforestation of our planet, and other threats that imperil the intricate web of life on Earth. Through visual representations, they aim to evoke a sense of urgency and a call to action, emphasizing the intrinsic value and beauty of our planet’s diverse ecosystems.
- Resource Depletion
Lastly, the topic of resource depletion finds resonance in many artistic expressions. Highlighting concerns such as the over-extraction of minerals, the looming threat of water scarcity, and the patterns of excessive consumption, artists channel these challenges through their work. By doing so, they prompt viewers to reflect on our consumption habits and the urgent need for sustainable practices to ensure a harmonious coexistence with nature.
For some inspiring examples of how artists use their work as platforms for issues dealing directly with art and sustainability check out this Ted Talk.
The Art World and It’s Carbon Footprint
Sustainability in art considers the entire lifecycle of an artwork, from its creation and exhibition to its storage or eventual decomposition, ensuring that each stage minimally impacts the environment.
The art world, much like other global industries, grapples with its carbon footprint, especially when it comes to the transport, storage, and presentation of artworks. Transporting artworks, often internationally, to galleries, exhibitions, and buyers contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions.
Whether it’s large installations shipped in containers or delicate paintings transported with care, the art industry relies heavily on logistics, and this movement leaves a carbon trail. Additionally, the packaging materials required to ensure art pieces are safe during transit—often plastic-based and non-biodegradable—further add to environmental concerns.
When it comes to storage and presentation, the energy demands can be substantial. Prestigious museums and galleries worldwide need to maintain strict climate control to preserve the integrity of artworks. This involves consistent temperature, humidity, and lighting levels, which can be energy-intensive, especially in larger institutions.
Moreover, exhibitions often employ spotlighting and other electronic equipment to enhance the visitor experience, further increasing their energy consumption. As the conversation around global sustainability intensifies, the art world is increasingly challenged to reconsider traditional practices, aiming for a balance between the preservation and presentation of art and the pressing need for environmental responsibility.
Is Art Wasteful?
I attended a talk recently regarding the sustainability challenges faced in the construction of the new Berlin Modern Museum. As touched upon earlier regarding the problems of climate control and presentation, organizers behind the planning of this new cultural center related the question of the wastefulness of art to that of the current European Energy Crisis.
Energy waste refers to the inefficient use of power where it doesn’t achieve a meaningful or intended purpose. Just as a heater running in an empty space exemplifies energy waste due to its lack of utility, the opposite scenario of warming a group signifies efficient use.
Relating this to art, one could argue that the value and impact of a piece are contingent upon its audience and context. An artwork tucked away unseen in a storage room might be considered a “wasted” expression of the artist’s energy, akin to the heater in an empty room.
Conversely, when displayed prominently and engaging viewers, the artwork transforms into an efficient conduit of the artist’s intent and energy, much like the heater warming a group. This underscores the interplay between creation, intention, utility, and appreciation in both art and energy consumption. Of course, in this sense, art is correlated to having a similar essential nature as heating, which, for me personally, is an acceptable conclusion.
Digital Art and Sustainability
Sustainable art and digital art intersect in intriguing ways, with the digital realm often perceived as a more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional art. Without the need for physical materials or transportation, digital art inherently reduces many of the tangible environmental concerns associated with conventional art practices.
However, as digital art’s popularity grows, especially in the era of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), its sustainability is being critically examined. The blockchain technology that underpins NFTs requires vast computational power, leading to significant energy consumption. This energy is predominantly sourced from non-renewable resources, casting a shadow on the perceived “green” nature of digital art.
Yet, there’s potential for digital art to align more closely with sustainability principles. As the tech industry shifts towards renewable energy sources and more energy-efficient server infrastructures, the carbon footprint of hosting digital artworks can decrease.
Moreover, innovations in blockchain technology, like the transition from energy-intensive proof-of-work to more efficient proof-of-stake consensus mechanisms, can further reduce its environmental impact. Therefore, while current practices raise valid concerns, the evolving landscape of digital technology offers hope for a more sustainable intersection between art and the digital realm.
3 Monumental Examples of Artistic Endeavors Embracing Sustainability
Hitting the message of art and sustainability home, Olafur Eliasson, Agnes Denes, and Micheal Pinsky, all with a clear and urgent message regarding climate change, and with the institutional support needed to fund and promote large-scale endeavors, have each created powerful examples of how art can embody the fleeting beauty of nature and the need for its preservation.
Olafur Eliasson’s “Ice Watch“
Olafur Eliasson’s “Ice Watch” is a striking installation that fuses the natural with the urban, providing city dwellers with a direct encounter with the haunting effects of climate change. Comprised of enormous blocks of ice harvested from the waters of Greenland, these glacial fragments are arrayed in public squares, where they inevitably and steadily melt away.
The beauty and transience of the ice blocks juxtaposed against the urban backdrop is both mesmerizing and melancholic. As the blocks diminish, they don’t merely represent the disappearing glaciers from whence they came, but they stand as solemn reminders of the broader ecological transformations our planet is undergoing. The melting ice, with its trickling sounds and fleeting existence, serves as a tangible chronometer of the pressing temporal nature of climate action.
Eliasson’s choice of Greenland’s ice is particularly poignant. Greenland’s ice sheet is experiencing accelerated melting, contributing significantly to global sea-level rise. As such, “Ice Watch” doesn’t just artistically symbolize this phenomenon but embodies it, with each drop from the melting ice echoing the larger losses occurring far from urban eyes.
Moreover, as spectators gather around these blocks, many touching and feeling the millennia-old ice, there’s an immediate physical and emotional connection established. For many urbanites, the threats of climate change often feel abstract or distant. But “Ice Watch” collapses this distance, making the crisis tactile and immediate. By providing this visceral, sensory experience, Eliasson masterfully elevates the conversation on climate change from intellectual discourse to a deeply personal reckoning.
Agnes Denes’s “Wheatfield – A Confrontation“
Agnes Denes’s “Wheatfield – A Confrontation” is a seminal work in the history of environmental art and remains a powerful statement on humanity’s relationship with nature, urban development, and land use.
In 1982, Agnes Denes transformed a two-acre plot of land in Lower Manhattan, which was a landfill at the time, into a thriving wheat field. This land was in the shadow of the Twin Towers, making the juxtaposition between the golden wheat and the skyscrapers a striking visual contrast. For several months, Denes cultivated the land, planted wheat seeds, and finally harvested an impressive yield. The project culminated with the grain being harvested, processed, and eventually traveled to 28 cities around the world in the exhibition “The International Art Show for the End of World Hunger.”
Denes’s work was a radical act, challenging the notions of urban utility and waste. By taking a plot of land slated for commercial development and turning it into a productive field, she highlighted the stark choices cities make regarding land use and the priorities assigned to commerce versus sustenance. The wheat field in the midst of the bustling financial district became a symbol of nature’s resilience, but also its fragility when confronted by urban sprawl and development.
“Wheatfield – A Confrontation” also spoke to the dichotomies of value: the value of land in monetary terms versus its value in terms of sustenance and life. The wheat field in one of the most expensive pieces of real estate in the world was a potent reminder of our disconnection from the natural processes that sustain us.
Moreover, the piece can be viewed as a powerful critique of short-term urban planning and the often-overlooked long-term benefits of sustainable land management. Through this work, Denes compelled viewers to reflect on humanity’s estrangement from the environment and emphasized the need to reintegrate nature and sustainability into our urban landscapes.
The ‘Pollution Pods‘ by Michael Pinsky
The ‘Pollution Pods’ installation by Michael Pinsky is an audacious and immersive art project that viscerally confronts participants with the tangible realities of global air pollution. Comprising a series of interconnected geodesic domes, this installation exposes visitors to the replicated air quality of various cities from around the globe. Each dome simulates the unique atmospheric conditions of a specific city, from the piercing clarity of Tautra in Norway to the choking smog of New Delhi.
Pinsky’s work is as much about sensory experience as it is about data. By using a mix of safe gases and aromas, he faithfully mimics the exact pollution levels and even the distinct smells associated with each location. Stepping from one dome to the next, participants undergo a dramatic sensory journey, feeling the stark contrasts in their lungs and nostrils. It’s an experience that is both enlightening and distressing.
Beyond the physical sensations, ‘Pollution Pods’ serves as a powerful commentary on environmental inequality and the urban disparities that exist in our globalized world. It drives home the point that while some cities enjoy the luxury of clean air, many others grapple daily with hazardous atmospheric conditions, impacting residents’ health and quality of life.
This video takes you inside one of these pods to get a feel of what a breath of fresh air feels like in some of the world’s most polluted cities.
Art as a Tool for Change
Art has the unique capability to make abstract concepts palpable. When one observes an artwork that conveys the dangers of plastic pollution, they’re not just getting a fact; they’re experiencing an emotion. This emotional connection can lead to increased awareness, a change in perspective, and even proactive measures.
Throughout history, art has often been used as a potent tool to shape discourse and public opinion, reminiscent of the power dynamics explored in our previous piece on art and propaganda. Beyond mere discourse, art and culture have consistently been at the forefront of instigating social change, ushering society into new epochs of understanding and action.
In the debate surrounding climate change, irrespective of where one stands on the political spectrum or whether they attribute it to natural cycles or human activity, the underlying sentiment remains consistent: our shared responsibility to conserve and protect the environment. Art transcends political divides, compelling us to look beyond divisive rhetoric to recognize the universal need for sustainable practices.
So How Can Art Promote Sustainability?
In its myriad forms, art can promote sustainability in profound ways. The following list demonstrates art’s special ability to address a greener future in the art world.
- Raising Awareness: Art can visualize the often abstract and distant concept of sustainability, making it more tangible. By illustrating the devastating effects of climate change, deforestation, or pollution, artists can generate immediate emotional responses that facts and figures alone might not evoke.
- Inspiring Action: The emotional impact of art can motivate viewers to take concrete actions, whether that’s reducing their own carbon footprint, participating in conservation efforts, or advocating for sustainable policies.
- Cultural Shift: Throughout history, art has been instrumental in driving cultural shifts. By consistently focusing on sustainability, artists can help mold a culture that values and prioritizes environmental conservation.
- Offering Alternatives: Art can showcase sustainable lifestyles and practices, presenting them as desirable and attainable. This can be done through depictions of harmonious coexistence with nature or highlighting communities that live sustainably.
- Reinventing Materials: Many contemporary artists are shifting towards using recycled or sustainable materials, demonstrating that beautiful artworks don’t necessitate harm to the environment. Such practices can inspire other sectors to rethink their material choices.
- Catalyzing Community Engagement: Public art installations, workshops, and exhibitions centered around sustainability can foster community discussions, collaborations, and initiatives aimed at environmental conservation.
- Challenging Consumerism: Art can critique excessive consumerism and the throwaway culture, prompting viewers to reconsider their consumption habits and the societal norms that encourage wastefulness.
In essence, art serves as both a mirror and a beacon—reflecting the current state of the world while illuminating the path toward a more sustainable future. Through its compelling narratives, vivid visuals, and emotional resonance, art plays an indispensable role in fostering a sustainable mindset in society.
For artists, the medium is not just canvas, stone, or metal; it’s emotion, consciousness, and action. By intertwining art and sustainability, they’re not just crafting pieces for the present; they’re envisioning a better, sustainable future and urging their audiences to do the same.